The first and only production facility in the world with 4 phases under the same roof.
The solar panel production consists of four phases which are called; ingot, wafer, cell and panel. Even though these phases are consistent throughout the globe, they are gathered under one single roof solely at the Kalyon Solar Technologies Factory and are produced at higher speeds and with lower costs.
Mono-crystalline and multi-crystal methods are used worldwide regarding the ingot production technology. Mono-crystalline stands out as being more efficient despite high investment and production costs. Kalyon Energy, prioritizing efficiency and quality, prefers the mono-crystalline technology.
Efficiency comes to a halt at 21% in multi-crystal cells. In mono-crystalline cells, 22% of sun beam and photon energies can be converted into electrical energy. Surface roughening and coating processes are also carefully monitored throughout the procedure.
In coating processes, metal steaming at nano-sized thicknesses is applied. Otherwise, different atoms are impregnated on the surface. This process is one that requires high levels of expertise and current know-how and encompasses many details and is carried out under the scope of a variety of global patents.
Phase one ingot production
Polysilicon obtained by processing the silicon found in sand is utilized as raw material in the production of the ingots. Polysilicon is melted at 1450 degrees Celsius in specialized machinery. Through this process, mono-crystalline silicon is turned into ingots. Utilizing specially prepared equipment and advanced engineering techniques, the melted raw material is then turned into a cylinder weighing about 400 kilograms and measuring at a height of approximately 4 meters. This conversion is calculated in millimeters. An advancement of 5 to10 millimeters per hour can be made. As the purity obtained during the production phase increases the quality of the end product, the production area sterilization is also carefully monitored throughout the process.
Phase two wafer
At this phase, also called the plate, the obtained ingot is put into work. To begin with, the extremities of the cylindrical product (head and tail) are separated from the body. Subsequently, the edges are cut and an angular shaped nugget roughly measuring about 3 meters is revealed.
The ingots produced are sliced at a thickness of 180 microns by diamond-coated, wire saws 60 microns thick at speeds of 15 meters per second. The wafer, which is attained by using advanced technological equipment, is then separated by particular procedures.
Phase three cell
It is the phase in which the obtained wafers are transformed into high-tech products. The silicon slices processed in the cell factory are passed through more than 30 different chemical and physical semiconductor production procedures and thus obtain photovoltaic solar cell attributions. Its two surfaces are suited to produce sunlight into electrical energy. The front surface converts direct sunlight into electricity, while the back surface accumulates the reflected sunlight.
Phase four panel
In the final phase, solar panels are produced by combining the cells. Depending on the produced panel, 60 or 72 cells are soldered together on a special surface by applying specific techniques. The efficiency rate of the panels made by processing silicon and turning into high-tech products is estimated to be 21.8%.